Butcher, J. N., Arbisi, P. A., Atlis, M. M., & McNulty, J. L. (2003). The construct validity of the Lees-Haley Fake Bad Scale: Does this measure somatic malingering and feigned emotional distress? Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 18(5), 473-485.

This study investigated the psychometrics of the Fake Bad Scale (FBS) using MMPI-2 profiles from 6 settings: Psychiatric Inpatient (N = 6731) Correctional Facility (N = 2897); Chronic Pain Program (N = 4408); General Medical (N = 5080); Veteran's Administration Hospital Inpatient (N = 901); and Personal Injury Litigation (N = 157). Most correlations of the FBS and raw scores on the MMPI-2 were positive with correlations among the validity scales being lower than among the clinical and content scales. The FBS was most strongly correlated with raw scores on Hs, D, Hy, HEA, and DEP. When the more conservative cutoff of 26 was used, the FBS classified 2.4-30.6% of Ss as malingerers. The highest malingering classification was for the women's personal injury sample (37.9%) while the lowest was among male prison inmates (2.3%). Compared to men, almost twice as many women were classified as malingerers. The FBS is more likely to measure general maladjustment and somatic complaints rather than malingering. The false positives rates are unacceptably high, especially in psychiatric settings, and classifies an unacceptably large number of individuals who are experiencing genuine psychological distress as malingerers. The FBS should not be used in clinical settings nor during disability evaluations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved)

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See also:

Lees-Haley & Fox 2004

Greve & Bianchini 2004

Dearth et al 2005

Bagby et al 2000