DeClue, G. (2005). Psychological Consultation in Cases involving Interrogations and Confessions. Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 33, 313-358.
Scientific investigation, including naturalistic observation and empirical research, is advancing our understanding of the psychology of interrogations and confessions. Psychological science enhances our understanding of why some people who initially claim innocence respond to interrogation procedures by confessing sometimes to crimes they did not commit. Legal procedures allow three opportunities for a Defendant to challenge confession evidence: whether there was a knowing, intelligent, and voluntary Miranda waiver; whether the confession was coerced (involuntary); and whether the confession is unreliable. Expert psychological or psychiatric testimony can assist courts in each of these determinations.